Post by repo
there was no unification of the Hispanicized Indians, i.e. No Spain ??
I and other Hispanized Indians would not be here today, we would
be dead as most of the non Hispanicized Indians were, i.e. extinct by
the hands of those under the English.
what bullshit. "natives" of Latin America go to ridiculously extreme
lenghts to protect the reputation of Spaniards:
from the book "NATIVE AMERICANS AND THE SPANISH", by Therese De
Angelis, copyright 1997
By 1514, only two decades after Columbus first arrived, the Arawak
population of Hispaniola had dropped from millions to 28,000; in
Borinquen, it had dropped from an estimated 300,000 to 4,000.
Forty years later, the Arawak were gone, decimated by disease,
murder, hunger, and slavery. Hispaniola was populated solely by the
Spanish, their European competitors (the French), and, not long after,
the hundreds of thousands of black Africans the Europeans would import
as slaves to replace the eradicated Indian labor force.
from the book "The Conquest of Paradise'" by Kirkpatrick Sale,
While the Admiral was off exploring Cuba, the colonists, whom he had
ordered "to patrol the country and reduce it to the service of the
Catholic Sovereigns," had taken their role a little too ardently,
rampaging through the island worse than before, searching everywhere
for gold, begging or stealing food, kidnapping boys to serve as slaves
and women as concubines, beating and maiming at will, raping and
pillaging at ease.........
Hence, on his return, "the Admiral found the island in a pitiful
state, with most of the Christians committing innumerable outrages for
which they were mortally hated by the Indians, who refused to obey
But the Governor's response, if perhaps typical, did not auger
well: he chose to punish the victim. On March 24, 1495, he assembled
two hundred soldiers in full armor (equipped with arquebuses,
crossbows, lances, pikes, swords, and twenty vicious dogs) and another
twenty mounted cavalry (whose horses, the likes of which the islands
had never seen, were often enough to send the Tainos flying in fear),
and marched out of Isabela to subdue the recalcitrant natives and tame
the countryside. In the valley of the Vega Real, about ten miles south
- a valley that Las Casas said the Spaniards had considered "some sort
of Paradise" the year before - the little army encountered a force
that Fernando solemnly gives as "more than one hundred thousand
Indians" (probably a tenfold exaggeration) and, having divided in two,
descended upon them with such ferocity that they "fled in all
directions." No pity now for the "gentile Tainos," who might just as
well have been Moors: the soldiers mowed down dozens with point-blank
volleys, loosed the dogs to rip open limbs and bellies, chased fleeing
Indians into the bush to skewer them on sword and pike.....
Forts were established in every major settlement across the island
- at least seven of them by 1500 - but it was the gallows that was the
real symbol of colonial rule: gallows, usually several of them, marked
every Spanish town, and before the decade was out no fewer than 340 of
them stretched across the Vega Real.
Then to force were added two other branches, so to speak, of
colonial government: tribute and slavery.
The tribute system, instituted by the Governor sometime in 1495, was
a simple and brutal way of fulfilling the Spanish lust for gold while
acknowledging the Spanish distaste for labor. Every Taino over the age
of fourteen had to supply the rulers with a hawk's bell full of gold
every three months; those who did were given a token to wear around
their necks as proof that they had made their payment; those who did
not were, as Fernando says discreetly, "punished" - by having their
hands cut off, as Las Casas says less discreetly, and left to bleed to
Las Casas, who came out to Espanola in 1502 and was himself an
"encomendero" for eight years before taking his religious vows, is our
chief source for the descriptions of the almost unbelievable abuses
committed by his fellow colonists........
The Spaniards, Las Casas reports, "made bets as to who would slit a
man in two, or cut off his head at one blow; or they opened up his
bowels. They tore the babies from their mother's breast by their feet,
and dashed their heads against the rocks.......They spitted the bodies
of other babes, together with their mothers and all who were before
them, on their swords." For more formal retribution they would hang
chosen Tainos from a small gallows frame, "just high enough for their
feet to nearly touch the ground, and by thirteens, in honour and
reverence for our Redeemer and the twelve Apostles, they put wood
underneath and, with fire, they burned the Indians alive."
For a long time in this century it was assumed that the population of
the Caribbean islands in 1492 could not have been much more than
200,000 or 300,000, and estimates by Las Casas among others of "more
than a million" were discounted as the reckless exaggeration of
amateurs. In recent years, however, considerable scholarly interest
has been focused on the population issue, thorough searches of
contemporary records have been undertaken, and a more reliable county
has been arrived at.
In the case of Espanola, for example, by far the most populous of
the islands, we now know that in 1496 Bartolome Colon, acting while
his brother returned to Spain, authorized a headcount of Indian
adults, presumably in order to keep track of the tribute system, and
came up with a figure of some 1.1 million. Inasmuch as this did not
count children below fourteen, the aged, "kasekes", and some others -
estimated at perhaps another 40 percent of the population - and
covered only that half of the island in Spanish control, a more
accurate figure for the whole of Espanola would be something closer to
a little more than 3 million. Moreover, the Bartolome survey was taken
four years later the initial contact with European pathogens and two
years after the imposition of the debilitating European rule, so we
may assume that the population of 1492 was even larger than that. The
two leading researchers here, Sherburne Cook and Woodrow Borah of the
University of California at Berkeley, have calculated the rate of
population decline after 1496, extrapolated from that a curve going
back to 1492, and come up with an estimate of the original island
population at just under 8 million people.
That makes the next figures we have almost unbelievable. Spanish
surveys of Espanola taken in 1508, 1510, 1514, and 1518 all show the
rough same picture, of a population then under 100,000 and declining
precipitously. The most detailed census, the repartimiento of 1514,
listed just 22,000 adults (which Cook and Borah expand to 27,800 to
include those officially uncounted): from 8 million to 28,000 in just
over 20 years. That is more than decimation, it is a carnage of more
than 99 percent, something we must call closer to genocide, and within
a single generation. By 1542, according to Las Casas, who was there at
the time, only 200 Tainos remained on Espanola, probably the last of
that people anywhere in the islands. Within a decade or two of that,
they were extinct.
from "North American Exploration", by Michael Golay, copyright 2003
Thousands of Spanish settled on Hispaniola, conquering the
By this time, too, the Spanish, having killed off most of the Indians,
had imported thousands of African slaves.
from "The Cuban Story", by Herbert Matthews, copyright 1961
Negro slaves were imported to Cuba in the first half of the nineteenth
century, mainly to work on the sugar plantations. The aboriginal
Indians had died off or been killed off long before.
from the book "CONQUEST, Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old
Mexico", by Hugh Thomas, copyright 1993
The Indian population of Hispaniola, meantime, which may have been
over 100,000 in 1492, dropped to about 30,000. Traditional agriculture
had been based on the cultivation of the cassava and the sweet potato.
Those crops declined because of the demands of the conquerors for
precious metals. There was soon not enough food: indeed, not enough
for the conquerors. Many Tainos died of hunger. The execution, or
flight, of traditional rulers caused the survivors to abandon hope.
Many of those who died did so by being worked to death.
.....the native population did disappear. Perhaps 200,000 people died
in the four large Caribbean islands in a quarter of a century.
The native population of Cuba was meantime declining as fast as
that of Hispaniola. Only about fifteen settlers had more than a
hundred Indians........Amador de Lares had begun to bring in a few
black slaves from Africa to compensate for the shortage.
Throughout the hemisphere war, disease and slavery wiped out nearly
90% of the Indigenous population within a century.
The best estimates of the size of Ecuador's native population at the
time of the conquest range between 750,000 and 1 million. Diseases
imported by the Spanish, particularly smallpox and measles, virtually
wiped out the indigenous coastal population during the sixteenth
century and also decimated the Sierra population, although not as
thoroughly as in the Costa or many other areas of Latin America.
1501 - 1821
In 1501, the first Europeans arrive in Central America. Spanish
conquerors begin sweeping through the continent. Between 1524 and
1650, about 85% of the Mayan population is killed by the conquerors'
guns, swords and new diseases to which they have no resistance. Many
survivors are enslaved, but some manage to flee to the higher
from the book "Everything You Need To Know About Latino History", by
Himilce Novas, copyright 1994.
Disease and overwork had reduced the native American population of
New Spain from 11 million or more in 1520 to a mere million. The
cattle and sheep the Spanish had imported to the Americas, in an
effort to develop ranching, drank all the irrigation water and left
the native American population unable to grow adequate food.
From the book "CONQUISTADORS", by Jean Descola, copyright 1957.
The Aztec Empire had become the empire of the dead. The earth was in
disorder as after an earthquake. Of the three hundred thousand
inhabitants of Mexico, only a few thousand had survived, and these
were in a terrible state.
From "CONQUISTADORS", by Jean Descola, copyright 1957.
When Columbus landed on Haiti, the island had a million inhabitants;
twenty years later there were only a thousand or two....
The island's indigenous inhabitants were the Taino Indians (Arawaks)
group and a small settlement of Caribs around the Bah�a de Saman�.
These Indians, estimated to number perhaps 1 million at the time of
their initial contact with Europeans, had died off by the 1550s.
Demographers estimate that the country's population at the time of the
Spanish conquest in the early 1500s was approximately 20 million. By
1600, however, barely 1 million remained--the result of deadly
European diseases and brutal treatment of the indigenous inhabitants
by the Spanish colonizers (see New Spain, ch. 1). At the onset of the
Mexican Revolution in 1910, Mexico's population stood at approximately
15 million persons. Not until 1940 did Mexico reach the population
level it had in 1519.
from the book "Great Conquerors of South and Central America", by A.
Hyatt Verrill, copyright 1929
So rapid and effective was the enslaving and extermination of the
Indians, that within 20 years after the discovery of the Antilles,
scarcely a single living free Indian existed upon the larger islands.